Here you can find all project research results, reports and other outcomes, organised on the basis of the five main axes of research and innovation:
European environmental policy and elderly citizens (WP2)
WP2 investigated how elderly human rights are protected in urban areas and paid attention on how human rights law impacts on the architecture of the city, social life and urban environment. The main result was a public awareness raising on the topic of elderly citizenship and the right to the city together with a coherent analysis of European policies on the issue. The work included a map of the best practices of smart cities in Europe in order to transplant those models in other less-friendly cities of both Europe and outside (i.e the city of Kiev).
2.1 Scientific Paper on European policies for the protection of elderly human rights in urban areas (M18)
2.2 Greener urban areas for more active citizens
2.3 A report to compare different policy approaches (M36)
2.4 Scientific paper on economic model (M40)
2.5 Report on best practices (M40)
Green Building for elderly. Population dynamics and new architectures (WP3)
3.1 Guidelines to develop an innovative certification (M36)
3.2 Scientific paper on Green procurement (M24)
3.3 Scientific paper on legal and financial aspects of contracts (M24)
3.4 Report on best practice on green & grey communities (M2.22)
Resource efficiency within the cities: the opportunities of local food supply and urban agriculture (WP4)
Le Marche Region Case Study: social farming for the elderly meets Montessori method of education in Le Marche Region. Le Marche decided to combine social farming for the elderly with the Montessori method of education, developed by the Dr. Maria Montessori, born in Le Marche Region in 1870, through a new Project, started in October 2017 within the ‘Program for Rural Development and Active Ageing 2014-2020’. The Montessori method is used mainly in child-education and it is based on self-directed activity and collaborative play. However, in the last twenty years this method started to become popular as treatment for Alzheimer’ disease and dementia, through an intergenerational system. Le Marche Region decided to merge Montessori principles with social farming benefits in order to promote a successful active ageing of its senior citizens affected by dementia and Alzheimer’s disease.
The project supports and funds activities carried out by social farms, based in the Region, that promote social and care services to elderly through intergenerational paths. The purpose is to develop a model of active ageing in both rural and urban areas of Le Marche, in order to pursue inclusion, health, and well-being of mentally-ill elderly. Another important aim is to finance a sort of ‘rural welfare’ made by social farmers, a welfare capable of compensating the lack of public services in certain rural areas.
4.1 Report on the taxonomy of sustainable food (M24)
4.2 Scientific paper on sustainable food and gastronomic cities (M36)
4.3 Scientific paper on legal discipline of urban agriculture (M36)
4.4 Scientific paper on social farming for elderly (M36)
4.5 Report on spatial planning (M36)
4.6 Report on the right to food and adequate food for elderly people
Information and language technology for green and healthy behaviour in cities (WP5)
In WP5, we have collected Twitter data in Dutch and English that have allowed us to carry out behavioral analysis of three age groups, that is people under 55, 55-67 and above 67. To this end, we rely on language use and the analysis of the topics present in the tweets as well as the use of hashtags. Special focus has been devoted to the attitude of elderly with respect to nature and sustainable development. The data is also being used to develop a methodology to detect age of twitter users automatically. In addition, we have developed specific software such as the AWARE platform, to collect data from hardware, software and human sensors in order to capture the behavior of older people in the future.
5.1 Report on data collection mobility patterns (M36)
Abstract: Our population is ageing at a fast pace, leading to new challenges and opportunities in all spheres of society. GRAGE project intends to respond to those challenges by analysing and disseminating ideas, that promote inclusive citizenship for the elderly living in the urban settings- from a legal, economic and technological perspective.
Oulu participates in WP5- Information and language technology for green and healthy behaviour in cities. The overall objective of WP5 is to study the use of technology to collect meaningful information on the environmental, physical, social and mobility behaviour in the urban setting. To address these goals, Oulu has first performed an in-depth review summarizing mobile technology adoption trends by the elderly internationally, as the use of mobile technology can offer insights on people’s mobility behaviour in the physical space. In addition, we have developed a tool to facilitate the analysis and visualization of large datasets from social media, shedding a light on people’s behaviour in the online space. Finally, we present a number of case-studies, on how data collected from technological platforms, particularly mobile devices, can act as a proxy for understanding human behavioural patterns, in context with the surrounding environment, and moreover for providing clues on future technology design trends, to better suit the needs of the seniors of the future.
5.2 Report of analysis of data mobility patterns (M47)
5.3 Report on data collection of social media (M36)
Abstract: In this report, we have presented the methodology to identify old adults in social networks and carry out data collection in order to perform a behavioral analysis to be reported in deliverable 5.4. An analysis of social media data can be revealing to assess the attitudes of various age groups but at the same time it seems relevant to understand whether and what role social networks might have in changing the behaviour of old adults with respect to environmental themes and in supporting their healthy ageing.
In our task, we have focused on Dutch old adults since we have shown on the basis of detailed statistics that the Netherlands are at the forefront for internet and social media use, the adoption includes not only young people but also a growing number of old adults and the elderly population. We have also shown that social networks is the most popular use among social media and for this reason, we have carried out a data collection from Twitter since data on this platform is publicly available.
In addition to data collection from social networks, we have assembled information based on a survey to assess the degree of age-friendliness of cities based on a WHO checklist.
5.4 Report of analysis of data on social media (M47)
5.5 Report on apps for navigation in cities (M36)
Abstract: The focus of this study is to specifically investigate preference of commuters both pedestrians and cyclists in two contrasting countries: the Netherlands and in Brazil. This study includes a thorough examination of literature to determine features of the urban environments that influence active travel behavior (1–49). Furthermore, a qualitative approach (‘focus groups’) was used to corroborate and elaborate our principal findings specifically from the perspective of commuters.The results will be interpreted for its relevance for the GRAGE-project.
We are interested in people that take partin daily commute. One of the reasons why we are interested in this target group is that the largest distance traveled by car per person per day in the Netherlands is from and to work (http://statline.cbs.nl) and car-use should preferably be reduced for reasons of the environment (ref). The retirement age in the Netherlands is at 65 years old; the retirement age in Brazil is 60 for women and 65 years old for men. The elderly no longer take part in daily commute and are thus excluded from our investigation. Another group we excluded were disabled people, they are a very small minority in the daily commute and there needs could be very specific from case to case, this is outside the scope of this investigation.
The recruitment strategy for the focus groups was to obtain a sample of our commuters. Currently, in São Carlos, Brazil there is only limited infrastructure for pedestrians and cyclists. To be able to discuss the existing and possible future infrastructure it was decided to exclude people with no experience and only include people that either had a positive attitude towards cycling or walkingor were at one point taking part in active commute.
5.6 Report on focus group (M47)
5.7 Report on user needs on active ageing (M36)
Abstract: As a society, we are facing a huge challenge. The demography of cities is changing as a result of the fact that we live longer and that more of us are becoming older (‘double ageing effect’). An emphasis on active ageing is necessary for individuals to live longer independently and happy. By 2050, the percentage globally of an elderly population is expected to double from 11% (in 2010) to 22%. Europe and North America are the leaders of this trend. Europe has one of the largest elderly populations in the world; 19 of the 20 countries have the oldest populations on earth. Since 2008, the majority of the world’s population live in cities, and this transition from rural to urban living is expected to continue. The interplay of dynamic population and urbanisation has great effects on the implementation of health and social policies.
Over the next two decades, the ongoing demographic shift could put a significant strain on the European economy, society and the sustainability of public finances. More liveable and efficient communities is a target to be reached in Europe, where the “silver hair” trends can become a challenging opportunity, from a social, economic and cultural perspective. Despite those challenges, solutions provided in urban contexts seldom pay attention to the social process underlying urban trends and to the needs and behaviour of elderly citizens. GRAGE contributes to fill this gap, by researching the needs of the users in the context of supporting elderly people to live independently and happy in urban contexts. A focus was on how ‘new’ technologies could facilitate this process and support user needs, and affect the way we live in urban areas.
Healthcare has improved and we are able to stretch out life expectancy: at birth, during life and at the end of life. But this progress comes with "defects". Despite shortcomings, we can lead a full, independent life. We share this under the umbrella term of ‘chronic health’. Thanks to technological developments, we can be more in charge of managing our health and deal with the deficits that come with age. We followed in this project the rather ‘young’ definition of health: “Health as the ability to adapt and self-manage, in the face of social, physical and emotional challenges.” (Huber, 2011). Technologies can support this process of adjusting and directing, but only when they fit the needs of its users to take control of their health.
5.8 Data analysis visualization (M47)
Europe as a global actor in green and grey business (WP6)
6.1 Report on past and ongoing European projects (M24)
6.2 Report on best practice at firm level on active ageing/green solution (M40)
6.3 Report on policies to be developed at European level for tackling ageing and urbanisation challenges, fostering urban sustainability (M40)
Article summary: The article compares the support needs of urban and rural elders with a descriptive-comparative study. The results show that urban elders have more spiritual needs than rural needs and recreational needs is higher in rural elderly people. Developing educational programs for urban elders will be effective in meeting their spiritual needs and on the other hand, creating recreational facilities, meeting health needs and increasing the level of literacy is essential for increasing social interaction to prevent social isolation.
Abstract: Today, in most urban and rural communities, younger members of the family are moving away from their families and undermining neighboring networks, resulting in some elderly people, being subject to deprivation due to transportation problems, health services And poorly educated or lack of access to information. That is they need more support, the purpose of this study was to compare the support needs of urban and rural elders who referred to health centers in Kermanshah in 2016.
Method: This research was descriptive-comparative Study. 384 elderly (192 urban elderly and 192 rural) were selected by random cluster sampling method from health centers of Kermanshah. Two Part questionnaires including demographic and support needs were used for data collection. To analyze the data, t-test and Chi-square was used.
Results: The results study, showed that urban elders had more spiritual needs than the rural elderly (P<0.02). Also, the results showed that the difference between health care needs, educational, recreation and transportation (p<0.01). There is a significant relationship between the support needs in rural and urban elders people who have more needs for urban elderly people. But in the case of nutritional needs and the need for personal care housing and safety, there was no significant difference between rural and urban elderly.
Conclusion: According to the findings, developing educational programs for urban elders will be effective in meeting their spiritual needs. On the other hand, creating recreational facilities, meeting health needs and increasing the level of literacy especially is essential for increasing social interactions to prevent social isolation.
Substantial ongoing research now uses smartphones as a research platform for various studies and interventions. With the ageing population becoming a frequent focus of needed research, an increasing number of studies and projects attempt to develop technological interventions for the elderly population. Yet, it is not clear exactly how widespread is the adoption and use of smartphones amongst seniors. Many studies acknowledge that today’s elders are not particularly keen on using smartphones, but in the near future we can expect this trend to change. In this paper we present an in-depth survey of statistics on smartphone adoption within the elder population, and describe both the popularity and type of use that smartphones enjoy amongst elders. We show that far from being ubiquitous, smartphones are still overshadowed by traditional feature phones today, and substantial geographical differences also do exist between countries. Furthermore, those seniors who do adopt smartphones tend to use them as featurephones, and do not adopt services that are popular amongst younger users. Our survey provides an assessment on the ubiquity of smartphones amongst seniors, that can be used to inform the assumptions of our research community.
A key question facing planners is how to design new and develop existing urban environments to improve the social health of older adults, and consequently improve their overall health and wellbeing. Unfortunately research relating to the influence of the environment on the social health of the elderly lacks a clear definition of ‘environment’. As a result the differing impacts of environment, however defined, on social health are not fully understood. This is an increasingly important area of research given the world's ageing population. This paper offers a critical review of the environment literature, with a specific focus on the how the physical, social, and policy dimensions of the environment influence the social life of the elderly; social life being an important component of social health. The paper investigates multiple environmental factors at different levels of influence on social life. It also provides a clear classification of environmental features that enable or inhibit social life. Drawing on the literature reviewed, there are manifold associations between physical, social, and policy environmental determinants of social health which need to be understood and prioritised. Developing age-friendly cities, where elderly people are socially active, results from a complex interplay of all of the determinants. This paper identifies the major gaps in current literature in this field and concludes with discussing key policy implications for planners. It offers areas for further research to improve the social health of the elderly through design of the urban environment.