Research on the comparison of the support needs of urban and rural elders

Article summary: The article compares the support needs of urban and rural elders with a descriptive-comparative study. The results show that urban elders have more spiritual needs than rural needs and recreational needs is higher in rural elderly people. Developing educational programs for urban elders will be effective in meeting their spiritual needs and on the other hand, creating recreational facilities, meeting health needs and increasing the level of literacy is essential for increasing social interaction to prevent social isolation.

Abstract: Today, in most urban and rural communities, younger members of the family are moving away from their families and undermining neighboring networks, resulting in some elderly people, being subject to deprivation due to transportation problems, health services And poorly educated or lack of access to information. That is they need more support, the purpose of this study was to compare the support needs of urban and rural elders who referred to health centers in Kermanshah in 2016.

Method: This research was descriptive-comparative Study. 384 elderly (192 urban elderly and 192 rural) were selected by random cluster sampling method from health centers of Kermanshah. Two Part questionnaires including demographic and support needs were used for data collection. To analyze the data, t-test and Chi-square was used.

Results: The results study, showed that urban elders had more spiritual needs than the rural elderly (P<0.02). Also, the results showed that the difference between health care needs, educational, recreation and transportation (p<0.01). There is a significant relationship between the support needs in rural and urban elders people who have more needs for urban elderly people. But in the case of nutritional needs and the need for personal care housing and safety, there was no significant difference between rural and urban elderly.

Conclusion: According to the findings, developing educational programs for urban elders will be effective in meeting their spiritual needs. On the other hand, creating recreational facilities, meeting health needs and increasing the level of literacy especially is essential for increasing social interactions to prevent social isolation.

Research on smarthphone adoption amongst elders

Abstract:
Substantial ongoing research now uses smartphones as a research platform for various studies and interventions. With the ageing population becoming a frequent focus of needed research, an increasing number of studies and projects attempt to develop technological interventions for the elderly population. Yet, it is not clear exactly how widespread is the adoption and use of smartphones amongst seniors. Many studies acknowledge that today’s elders are not particularly keen on using smartphones, but in the near future we can expect this trend to change. In this paper we present an in-depth survey of statistics on smartphone adoption within the elder population, and describe both the popularity and type of use that smartphones enjoy amongst elders. We show that far from being ubiquitous, smartphones are still overshadowed by traditional feature phones today, and substantial geographical differences also do exist between countries. Furthermore, those seniors who do adopt smartphones tend to use them as featurephones, and do not adopt services that are popular amongst younger users. Our survey provides an assessment on the ubiquity of smartphones amongst seniors, that can be used to inform the assumptions of our research community.

Review on how to design new and develop existing urban environments to improve the social health of older adults.

Abstract:
A key question facing planners is how to design new and develop existing urban environments to improve the social health of older adults, and consequently improve their overall health and wellbeing. Unfortunately research relating to the influence of the environment on the social health of the elderly lacks a clear definition of ‘environment’. As a result the differing impacts of environment, however defined, on social health are not fully understood. This is an increasingly important area of research given the world's ageing population. This paper offers a critical review of the environment literature, with a specific focus on the how the physical, social, and policy dimensions of the environment influence the social life of the elderly; social life being an important component of social health. The paper investigates multiple environmental factors at different levels of influence on social life. It also provides a clear classification of environmental features that enable or inhibit social life. Drawing on the literature reviewed, there are manifold associations between physical, social, and policy environmental determinants of social health which need to be understood and prioritised. Developing age-friendly cities, where elderly people are socially active, results from a complex interplay of all of the determinants. This paper identifies the major gaps in current literature in this field and concludes with discussing key policy implications for planners. It offers areas for further research to improve the social health of the elderly through design of the urban environment.

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